Long Name Remote Assessment of Disease and Relapse in Central Nervous System Disorders
Description Remote Assessment of Disease and Relapse in Central Nervous System Disorders. The RADAR-CNS project aims to develop new ways of monitoring major depressive disorder, epilepsy, and multiple sclerosis using wearable devices and smartphone technology. The key goal of the project is to improve patients’ symptoms and quality of life and also to change how these and other chronic disorders are treated. Epilepsy, depression, and multiple sclerosis are distinct disorders that affect 400 million people worldwide, with different causes and symptoms, all of which can be severely detrimental to patients’ quality of life and life expectancy. For all three disorders, patients often experience periods where their symptoms are manageable, followed by periods of deterioration and acute illness (relapse). Patient surveys have repeatedly highlighted the need to predict when relapses will happen and to improve the treatments which are available to stop them from occurring. Continuous remote assessment using smartphones and wearable devices provides a complete picture of a patient’s condition at a level of detail which was previously unachievable. Moreover, it could potentially allow treatment to begin before a patient’s health deteriorates, preventing the patient relapsing or becoming more ill before they seek treatment.
Objectives 1. Create a pipeline for developing, testing and implementing RMT for depression, multiple sclerosis (MS) and epilepsy with patient involvement at each stage of development. 2. Devise clinical studies which will use observational prospective designs to follow patients with specific diseases, stratified by known prognostic indicators, in order to test the acceptability and determine the added value of RMT, in addition to conventional markers of disease outcomes, to detect changes in disease state, change in disease state due to drug effects and prediction of change in disease state. 3. Engage stakeholders at the outset to maximise real world use of RMT and to produce relevant and
Start date 01-04-2016
End date 31-03-2022
Name Projects Type of institution Country  
VU University Medical Center Amsterdam EPAD AMYPAD IM2PACT PRISM MOPEAD RADAR-CNS RADAR-AD EMIF PRISM2 Pharma-Cog EPND Academia Netherlands
Consorcio Centro De Investigacion Biomedica En Red M.P. PRISM RADAR-CNS PRISM2 Academia Spain
Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin EQIPD PHAGO RADAR-CNS Academia Germany
Fundacio Hospital Universitari Vall D'Hebron - Institut De Recerca MOPEAD RADAR-CNS Academia Spain
King's College London PHAGO RADAR-CNS RADAR-AD EMIF PD-MIND EPND Academia United Kingdom
Msd It Global Innovation Center Sro RADAR-CNS EFPIA Czech Republic
Katholieke Universiteit Leuven RADAR-CNS Mobilise-D Academia Belgium
Northwestern University RADAR-CNS Academia United States
Provincia Lombardo Veneta - Ordineospedaliero Di San Giovanni Di Dio - Fatebenefratelli RADAR-CNS EMIF Pharma-Cog Academia Italy
Region Hovedstaden RADAR-CNS Academia Denmark
Stichting Imec Nederland RADAR-CNS Academia Netherlands
University Of Nottingham RADAR-CNS Academia United Kingdom
Universita Degli Studi Di Bergamo RADAR-CNS Academia Italy
Universita Vita-Salute San Raffaele RADAR-CNS Mobilise-D Academia Italy
Universitaet Augsburg RADAR-CNS Academia Germany
Universitaetsklinikum Freiburg RADAR-CNS Academia Germany
Universitat Passau RADAR-CNS Academia Germany
Gabo:Mi Gesellschaft Fur Ablauforganisation:Milliarium MbH & Co. KG RADAR-CNS SME Germany
Intel Corporation Ltd RADAR-CNS SME United Kingdom
Fundacio Sant Joan De Deu RADAR-CNS Academia Spain
Ospedale San Raffaele SRL RADAR-CNS Academia Italy
The Hyve BV RADAR-CNS RADAR-AD Other Netherlands
WP number Description Project  
WP1 Project Management RADAR-CNS
WP2 Patient Involvement RADAR-CNS
WP3 Clinical Harmonisation RADAR-CNS
WP4 Epilepsy  RADAR-CNS
WP5 Multiple Sclerosis RADAR-CNS
WP6 Major Depressive Disorder RADAR-CNS
WP7 Devices and Platform  RADAR-CNS
WP8 Data Analysis & Biosignatures RADAR-CNS
WP9 Clinical Pathways RADAR-CNS
WP10 Regulation RADAR-CNS
WP11 Dissemination, Exploitation and Communication RADAR-CNS
Deliverable number Title Project Submission date Link Keywords  
D11.3 Launch of website, Twitter, LinkedIn RADAR-CNS 17-10-2016
D3.1 Define list of variables to be included in the assessment scheme RADAR-CNS 16-01-2017
D2.4 Completion of literature review RADAR-CNS 01-10-2018
D1.4 First Periodic Report RADAR-CNS 01-06-2017
D10.1 Primer with regulatory requirements for RMT RADAR-CNS 27-11-2016
D1.5 Report on first annual meeting RADAR-CNS 31-10-2017
D1.3 Submit ethical approvals by the competent legal local/national Ethics Boards/Bodies to IMI RADAR-CNS 31-03-2018
D1.6 Second Periodic Report RADAR-CNS 29-11-2018
D11.1 Individualized press release for every partner RADAR-CNS 30-06-2016
D1.7 Report on second annual meeting RADAR-CNS 14-07-2019
D5.3 Production of a detailed description of the definite RMT package which will be used in MS patients RADAR-CNS 11-04-2018
D6.3 Completion of RADAR-MDD study protocol and ethics approval, supplemented by learnings of Orbit data RADAR-CNS 07-04-2017
D5.1 Protocols development and achievement of local ethic approval RADAR-CNS 01-04-2018
D2.1 Provide IMI with measures taken to prevent risk of enhancing vulnerability and stigmatisation of individuals/groups RADAR-CNS 15-02-2016
D6.1 Report on mental capacity and consent issues. Template for informed consent for all disease areas in RADAR-CNS RADAR-CNS 29-06-2016
D10.4 Year three update report on learnings with regard to regulatory requirements RADAR-CNS 01-04-2019
D5.2 Analysis of the results obtained by the focus group in MS patients RADAR-CNS 01-04-2017
D4.1 Completion of protocol and local ethics approval for project 1 RADAR-CNS 01-10-2017
D6.5 interim report on recruitment to RADAR-MDD RADAR-CNS 01-04-2018
D9.3 Coordinated summary report of technical and clinical work package response to expert elicitation RADAR-CNS 29-04-2019
D9.1 Preliminary report on pathways, decision points and stakeholder requirements relating to the three disease areas RADAR-CNS 01-04-2017
D5.4 Report on the state of recruitment and of the protocol advances in both the ongoing studies RADAR-CNS 01-04-2018
D1.2 Report on Kick-Off meeting RADAR-CNS 30-09-2016
D4.2 A report on stakeholder views of RMT in epilepsy, collating information from focus groups, expert workshops and other fora RADAR-CNS 01-06-2017
D10.3 Year two update report on learnings with regard to regulatory requirements RADAR-CNS 07-06-2018
D6.4 Submission of ethics approvals to IMI RADAR-CNS 25-09-2018
D10.2 Year one update report on learnings with regard to regulatory requirements RADAR-CNS 31-03-2017
D3.9 Briefing package for stakeholders RADAR-CNS 01-05-2020
D1.9 Report on third annual meeting RADAR-CNS 01-10-2020
D3.6 Complete systematic review on mood changes in MS RADAR-CNS 30-04-2018
D10.5 Year four update report on learnings with regard to regulatory requirements RADAR-CNS 01-04-2020
D4.4 Completion of protocol and local ethics approval for study 2 RADAR-CNS 01-01-2019
D6.2 Interim report on feasibility and acceptability of RMT RADAR-CNS 01-04-2017
D5.6 Complete recruitment of 400 MS patients, report on the state of recruitment of the 240 newly diagnosed MS patients. Written report of the protocol advances in both the ongoing studies RADAR-CNS 12-08-2020
D6.2 Regulatory and HTA experience with AD-approved products RADAR-CNS 04-12-2018
D10.7 Year five update report on learnings with regard to regulatory requirements RADAR-CNS 08-04-2021
D1.8 Mid-term ethics report RADAR-CNS 06-10-2021
D4.3 The performance of RMT parameters in detection of GTCS and FS during simultaneous video-EEG RADAR-CNS 09-08-2021
D9.2 Report on results of expert elicitation on healthcare professional requirements for RMT, with shared learning workshop RADAR-CNS 03-01-2021
D2.5 Report on Key Drivers and Facilitators for engagement RADAR-CNS 10-09-2021
D3.3 Complete systematic review on aRMT in depression RADAR-CNS 22-06-2021
D9.4 Report on initial value proposition for RMT RADAR-CNS 09-04-2021
D1.11 Report on Fourth Annual Meeting RADAR-CNS 31-05-2021
D2.3 Clinical endpoint priorities RADAR-CNS 05-01-2021
Title First author last name Year Project Link Keywords  
Emotional outcomes in clinically isolated syndrome and early phase multiple sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis Rintala 2019 RADAR-CNS Systematic review, multiple sclerosis, anxiety, depression, quality of life
Patient perspectives on the acceptability of mHealth technology for remote measurement and management of epilepsy: A qualitative analysis Simblett 2019 RADAR-CNS Psychosocial research paper, Epilepsy, mHealth, Acceptability and feasibility, Qualitative analysis
Engaging across dimensions of diversity: A cross-national perspective on mHealth tools for managing relapsing remitting and progressive multiple sclerosis Simblett 2019 RADAR-CNS Psychosocial research paper, multiple sclerosis, mobile health, mHealth, barriers and facilitators, Engagement
Remote assessment of disease and relapse in major depressive disorder (RADAR-MDD): a multi-centre prospective cohort study protocol Matcham 2019 RADAR-CNS Clinical study protocol, Major depressive disorder, Remote measurement technology, Passive sensing, M-health, Prospective study, Observational cohort, Outcome measurement
Barriers to and Facilitators of Engagement With mHealth Technology for Remote Measurement and Management of Depression: Qualitative Analysis Simblett 2019 RADAR-CNS Psychosocial research paper, acceptability, barriers, depression, facilitators, feasibility, mHealth, qualitative
RADAR-Base: An open source mHealth platform for collecting, monitoring and analyzing data using sensors, wearables and mobile devices Ranjan 2018 RADAR-CNS Informatics research paper, real world data, wearables, remote assessment, mHealth
Ictal hypoxemia: a systematic review and meta-analysis Bruno 2018 RADAR-CNS Systematic review, ictal hypoxia, cardiorespiratory alterations, SUDEP, ictal respiratory changes
Barriers to and Facilitators of Engagement With Remote Measurement Technology for Managing Health: Systematic Review and Content Analysis of Findings Simblett 2018 RADAR-CNS Systematic review, mHealth, technology, engagement, telemedicine, remote sensing technology, patient participation
Wearable technology in epilepsy: The views of patients, caregivers, and healthcare professionals Bruno 2018 RADAR-CNS Psychosocial research paper, epilepsy, wearable technology, stakeholders' view, Seizure detection
Pre-ictal heart rate changes: A systematic review and meta-analysis Bruno 2018 RADAR-CNS Systematic review, autonomic nervous system, epilepsy, meta-analysis, pre-ictal manifestations
Patient's experience of wearing multimodal sensor devices intended to detect epileptic seizures: A qualitative analysis Simblett 2020 RADAR-CNS Epilepsy, Acceptability, Feasibility, Qualitative analysis, Wearables, Seizure detection
Day and night comfort and stability on the body of four wearable devices for seizure detection: A direct user-experience Bruno 2020 RADAR-CNS Epilepsy, Remote monitoring technology (RMT), Users, M-health, Wearables
Using Smartphones and Wearable Devices to Monitor Behavioral Changes During COVID-19 Sun 2020 RADAR-CNS mobile health, COVID-19, behavioral monitoring, smartphones, wearable devices, mobility, phone use
Patients self-mastery of wearable devices for seizure detection: A direct user-experience Bruno 2020 RADAR-CNS Epilepsy, Remote monitoring technology (RMT), Self-management, m-health, Wearables
Health Care Professionals’Views on Using Remote Measurement Technology in Managing Central Nervous System Disorders: Qualitative Interview Study Andrews 2020 RADAR-CNS epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, depression, medical devices, barriers, health personnel, qualitative, mobile phones, mHealth, eHealth
Real-time assessment of COVID-19 prevalence among multiple sclerosis patients: a multicenter European study Dalla 2020 RADAR-CNS Multiple Sclerosis, Remote monitoring technologies, COVID-19
Human-Centered Design Strategies for Device Selection in mHealth Programs: Development of a Novel Framework and Case Study Polhemus 2020 RADAR-CNS human-centric design, design thinking, patient centricity, device selection, technology selection, remote patient monitoring, remote measurement technologies
Post‐ictal accelerometer silence as a marker of post‐ictal immobility Bruno 2020 RADAR-CNS convulsive seizures, m-health, risk factors, technology, wearables
Patients' experience of wearing multimodal sensor devices intended to detect epileptic seizures: A qualitative analysis Simblett 2020 RADAR-CNS Epilepsy, Acceptability, Feasibility, Qualitative analysis, Wearables, Seizure detection
Informing the Development of a Digital Health Platform Through Universal Points of Care: Qualitative Survey Study Craven 2020 RADAR-CNS qualitative survey study, universal points of care (UPOC),views on the potential use, acceptance, and value of a novel RMT platform, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, depression, expert elicitation, analysis of care pathways , health care practitioners; health care services researchers; people with lived experience
230 days of ultra long‐term subcutaneous EEG: seizure cycle analysis and comparison to patient diary Viana 2020 RADAR-CNS seizures,eeg,patient,seizure,cycles,detection,data,epilepsy,scalp,
Remote Assessment of Disease and Relapse in Epilepsy: Protocol for a Multicenter Prospective Cohort Study Bruno 2020 RADAR-CNS epilepsy, seizures, telemedicine, medical device, mobile phone
Digital semiology and time-evolution pattern of bio-signals in focal onset motor seizures Bruno 2021 RADAR-CNS Epilepsy, Remote monitoring technology (RMT), Users, M-health, Wearables
Relationship Between Major Depression Symptom Severity and Sleep Collected Using a Wristband Wearable Device: Multicenter Longitudinal Observational Study Zhang 2021 RADAR-CNS mobile health (mHealth); mental health; depression; sleep; wearable device; monitoring
Predicting Depressive Symptom Severity Through Individuals’ Nearby Bluetooth Device Count Data Collected by Mobile Phones: Preliminary Longitudinal Study Zhang 2021 RADAR-CNS mental health; depression; digital biomarkers; digital phenotyping; digital health; Bluetooth; hierarchical Bayesian model; mobile health; mHealth; monitoring
Investigating the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on adults with a recent history of recurrent major depressive disorder: a multi-Centre study using remote measurement technology Leightley 2021 RADAR-CNS Remote measurement technology, Major depressive disorder, Mobile health
The impact of data from remote measurement technology on the clinical practice of healthcare professionals in depression, epilepsy and multiple sclerosis: survey Andrews 2021 RADAR-CNS Depression; Epilepsy; Healthcare professionals; Multiple sclerosis; Remote measurement technology; Smartphone apps; Survey.
Fitbeat: COVID-19 Estimation Based on Wristband Heart Rate Using a Contrastive Convolutional Auto-Encoder Liu 2021 RADAR-CNS Anomaly detection; COVID-19; Contrastive learning; Convolutional auto-encoder; Respiratory tract infection.
Detecting Tonic-Clonic Seizures in Multimodal Biosignal Data From Wearables: Methodology Design and Validation Böttcher 2021 RADAR-CNS digital health; eHealth; epilepsy; mHealth; mobile health; multimodal data; seizure detection; wearables.
Exploring the Effects of In-App Components on Engagement With a Symptom-Tracking Platform Among Participants With Major Depressive Disorder (RADAR-Engage) White 2021 RADAR-CNS app; engagement; major depressive disorder; mobile phone; remote measurement technologies; research.
The Association Between Home Stay and Symptom Severity in Major Depressive Disorder: Preliminary Findings From a Multicenter Observational Study Using Geolocation Data From Smartphones Laiou 2022 RADAR-CNS GPS; PHQ-8; home stay; major depressive disorder; mobile phone; smartphone
Remote Assessment of Disease and Relapse in Major Depressive Disorder (RADAR-MDD): recruitment, retention, and data availability in a longitudinal remote measurement study Matcham 2022 RADAR-CNS Cohort study; Longitudinal; Major depressive disorder; Multicentre; Remote measurement technologies.
Longitudinal Relationships Between Depressive Symptom Severity and Phone-Measured Mobility: Dynamic Structural Equation Modeling Study Zhang 2022 RADAR-CNS depression; dynamic structural equation modeling; location data; mHealth; medical informatics; mental health; mobile health; mobility; modeling.
Noninvasive mobile EEG as a tool for seizure monitoring and management: A systematic review Biondi 2022 RADAR-CNS EEG; mobile; review; seizure; wearable.
Data Visualization for Chronic Neurological and Mental Health Condition Self-management: Systematic Review of User Perspectives Polhemus 2022 RADAR-CNS data visualization; digital health; mental health; neurology; remote measurement technology; user-centered design.
Predictors of engagement with remote sensing technologies for symptom measurement in Major Depressive Disorder Matcham 2022 RADAR-CNS Cohort study; Engagement; Major Depressive Disorder; Predictors; Remote sensing.
Making remote measurement technology work in multiple sclerosis, epilepsy and depression: survey of healthcare professionals Andrews 2022 RADAR-CNS Remote measurement technology, Multiple sclerosis, Epilepsy, Depression, Healthcare professionals, Survey
Key Drivers and Facilitators of the Choice to Use mHealth Technology in People With Neurological Conditions: Observational Study Simblett 2022 RADAR-CNS digital health; discrete choice experiment; epilepsy; health data; health economics; mHealth; mobile technology; multiple sclerosis; neurological conditions; wearable biosensors; wearable technology
Intra- and Inter-Subject Perspectives on the Detection of Focal Onset Motor Seizures in Epilepsy Patients Böttcher 2022 RADAR-CNS wearables, epilepsy, seizure detection, multimodal, mHealth, eHealth, mobile health, digital health
Lessons learned from recruiting into a longitudinal remote measurement study in major depressive disorder Oetzmann 2022 RADAR-CNS Depression, Clinical trial design,
Title Description Type Project  
Cohort of patients with recurrent depressive disorder who will use RMT

This is a a multicentre observational cohort study (RADAR-MDD). Patients with recurrent depressive disorder using RMT will be included. Also, information regarding clinical outcomes (particularly, though not exclusively, recurrence and relapse) over the course of 12 months will be added. For more information please visit:

cohort-clinical-radar-cns-9 RADAR-CNS
Cohort of MS patients

This is a prospective multicenter cohort study conducted in all three MS centres involving MS patients with relapsing remitting and progressive disease and with an EDSS between 2.0 and 6.0 (i.e. fully ambulatory patients with mild disability to patient able to walk with a single aid for at least 100 m). For more information please visit:

cohort-clinical-radar-cns-10 RADAR-CNS
Cohort of epilepsy patients with ongoing seizures despite treatment

This is multi-centre observational clinical cohort study (RADAR-EPILEPSY) of adult patients with either, or both, GTCS or FS, who have ongoing seizures despite treatment. The participants will undergo detailed baseline interviews. For more information please visit:

cohort-clinical-radar-cns-11 RADAR-CNS
Radar Base Platform

An open source platform for integrating data streams from various wearable devices and mobile applications The comprehensive end-to-end platform will support research on RMT beyond the focus of this project. The platform will be: (a) flexible, allowing new devices/parameters to be added; (b) sustainable – such that the same underlying platform can be used to study different disease to those specified in the call; (c) patient friendly – such that monitoring is unobtrusive, protects privacy, and is engaging for patients by providing feedback; and (d) interconnected – integrating RMT data with conventional clinical outcome/EHR data. For more information please visit:

platform-clinical-radar-cns-6 RADAR-CNS
Patient Advisory Board

To ensure that the views of people with conditions are incorporated into RADAR-CNS we have set up a Patient Advisory Board that includes people with depression, epilepsy and multiple sclerosis along with representatives from relevant support organisations. Their role as self-employed advisors is to provide feedback on the layout and content of research materials and provide expert opinions on important decisions to be made in the design of studies. For more information, please visit:

sem-clinical-radar-cns-4 RADAR-CNS


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